Order in the Universe

A major evidence of divine creation is the presence of design and order that implies a designer. This is so with houses, watches, and cars. Why can we not see the same regarding our universe? The Bible states this fact as an evidence of God’s existence (Psa. 19:1-2; 139:14; 1 Cor. 12:18; Heb. 3:4; Rom. 1:18-20; Isa. 40).

Numerous examples can be cited of design as seen in our world. Space does not allow us to detail more than a few in various categories. For more examples, several sources are of special interest. John Clayton published Dandy Designs (1984) and Dandy Designs: Volume 2 (1991) which are filled with examples of design in our world. In his book Genes, Genesis, and Evolution, John W. Klotz gives numerous examples of design in chapter 12, “Problems for the Evolutionist”. Evolution and Christian Faith by Bolton David Heiser has a section on “Teleology” which is also very helpful in this area of study. The examples given in this article are taken mainly from these sources.

Order in the Animate World

Bees: In winter, bees cluster in the hive and begin a vibratory motion in their muscles which generates enough heat to keep the hive and its cold-blooded occupants from freezing. In hot weather they gather outside the hive and fan air into the hive with vigorous wing beating. When a bee returns to the hive from a successful pollen trip, according to Dr. Karl Von Frisch, they put a little nectar from the plant on as many other bees as are needed to harvest the flower. The exploring bee then “dances” for about 30 seconds in front of the selected bees, indicating to them where the flower is. At the conclusion of this dance the selected bees exit, flying straight to the supplying flower.

Even the sexual aspect of the bee’s existence is unique. There are three sexes of bees. The queen and the drone bees are the male and female, and have no function other than the reproductive one. The worker bees are neither queens nor drones. They are different in appearance and in functions. This is genetically determined and is inherent in the eggs of the queen. The worker bee hatches out of an unfertilized egg, while the queen and drones hatch out of fertilized eggs in a normal manner. This sort of “virgin birth” is also beyond a trial and error explanation. How many “experiments” that would influence these kind of things could a hive of bees survive? How did the first bees collect nectar, reproduce three classes, fold their wings, cool and heat their hive if they are merely mutated flies or some other form? It would seem that the intelligence that created and designed the first bee built into the genetic code of that insect the traits that the insect would need to survive. Isn’t it more reasonable to explain this fantastic design by God than blind hope that somehow a chance hypothesis might work?

Symbiotic Relationships
A symbiotic relationship is one in which two organisms mutually benefit each other to the point where they are dependent upon one another for survival. Bees and flowering plants are an example of a symbiotic relationship. The plant needs the bee to pollinate other plants and allow reproduction to occur. The bee gets its nourishment from the plant, so both organisms profit from the relationship. The question that arises here is how such an arrangement comes to be. The classical evolutionary explanation is that originally the organisms involved did not need each other, but became dependent on one another over time. But how do we explain relationships where the existence of the species are totally dependent on one another? The yucca plant of our Southwestern deserts is pollinated only by the yucca moth. But the yucca moth larvae are totally dependent upon the yucca moth pollen as their sole food source to reach maturity. How did this develop over time when neither species could have existed without the other?

The March, 1980, issue of Natural History Magazine details a symbiotic relationship between the narrow-mouthed toad (Gastrophryne olivecea) and the tarantula (Dugesiella hentzi). The toad lives in the same furrow as the tarantula and yet is not attacked or bothered by the tarantula in any way. The toad also does not eat the baby tarantulas when they are born even though they resemble very closely the ants which are the toad’s primary food source. When a snake or some other predator tries to eat the toad he will scurry under the tarantula who wards off any and all enemies that might threaten the toad. We see the advantage to the toad of this arrangement, but the advantage to the tarantula is not immediately apparent. Study has, however, shown that the worst enemy the tarantula has is the fire ant, which not only will eat the eggs of the tarantula but will also eat the baby tarantula immediately after they hatch. The favorite food of the narrow-mouthed toad is the fire ant. By preserving and protecting the toad the tarantula assures the survival of her eggs and young. Trying to explain this relationship by chance, it seems to the author, requires much more faith than accepting God’s design of this relationship.

Human Body
Consider the order of the human body. We still cannot match the human eye for vision even using the very latest technology and allowing for many times the space occupied by the eye. As we behold the order of the heart, lungs, brain, eyes, ears, muscles, bone structure, chemical processes or thousands of other systems, we must marvel at the order in each system down to the smallest detail. When we consider that all of those systems exist within each human being, it increases our sense of awe. As researchers delve more deeply into the human body, they are increasingly amazed at its complexity. The project aimed at mapping the human genes has presented a picture of the formerly unimagined order which exists within every cell of our body. Are they all the product of mere chance? What are the odds of that happening? When we consider the human body, we must echo the psalmist in saying to God, “I will praise You, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; marvelous are Your works, and that my soul knows very well” (Psa. 139:14).

Single-Use Muscle
There is a muscle in the human heart which only functions once at birth, but is necessary for us to survive the change from life within the womb to life outside the womb. It causes the child coming from the womb to send blood to his own lungs for oxygenation rather than seeking such from the mother as is done throughout embryonic development. How did that evolve when it had to be there for any human to survive birth?

Our Skin
Have you ever considered what an incredible thing the human skin is? A farmer’s hands can be like sandpaper, but his abdomen will be made of pliable white folds. Your legs have skin bonded tightly to a muscle layer. The skin on your elbow is like the neck of a cat — able to be lifted loosely in folds. If one were to take a microscope and examine the skin of our scalp, lip, heel, stomach and finger, it would appear that different species were being examined. Your skin weighs only about nine pounds. There is no organ like it. It flexes, folds, crinkles around joints and regenerates itself if it is damaged. When we blush, the vessels which supply blood to the skin suddenly rush 50 times more blood than usual to the skin. (Imagine a water pump that could do this in a matter of seconds.) Our skin radiates our emotions, cools us, protects us, beautifies us, insulates us and serves as a receptor for all kinds of stimuli.

Genes & DNA
With the advances in understanding fundamentals about life from the human genome project, it is hard to believe that anyone could seriously believe that life developed by mere chance. The cells in the human body number into the trillions. Each cell has genes filled with DNA which is coded with information concerning every aspect of our physical being. It is estimated that a translation into English of the DNA codes found in one cell of the human body would fill a thousand volume encyclopedia set. A brief look at an article dealing with the complexity and order of this code suggests there must be a code-maker behind the process.

Order in the Inanimate World

Our solar system is an example of fantastic order. We can measure the time of the earth’s rotation around the sun with precision and depend upon that as a constant. The same is true regarding the movement of stars, planets, comets and other heavenly bodies. That precision allows us to predict an eclipse of the sun or moon, the return of a comet, a meteor shower, or any number of other events long in advance with accuracy down to the second. What are the chances of this all falling into place by mere coincidence following a massive explosion?

Rotation & Orbit of Earth
The rotation of the earth around the sun and the earth’s rotation on its axis is exactly right to sustain life. If our planet rotated on its axis a little slower, temperatures in the day would be too hot and during the nights too cold to sustain life. If that rotation were faster, we would have equally grave problems. The speed of the earth’s rotation on its axis is just right to maintain the proper temperature and aid in several factors necessary to sustain life. Then there is the orbit of the earth around the sun to consider. If we were just a little farther from the sun, the earth would be too cold to sustain life. If we were closer, it would be too hot. Besides these things, there is the exacting balance which exists in the gravitational pull and magnetic fields of the earth as a result of these factors. What are the odds of such exact balances being the result of a huge explosion?

Our Atmosphere
Our air is just the right density to burn up the 10,000 plus meteors that strike the Earth every year. It is also dense enough to scatter the cosmic rays and X-rays of the Sun so that we are protected from this dangerous radiation. It is just thin enough to allow light to penetrate to give plants the ability to grow, and to keep the proper gases near the surface of the Earth for all living things to use. It is also at this point that the composition chemically of the Earth’s atmosphere comes into the picture. Our air has enough carbon dioxide to produce what is called “The Greenhouse Effect”. This gas allows the rays of the Sun to reach the Earth, but does not allow the heat produced by these rays to be re-radiated back into space. This traps the heat just as the glass in your car does, making your car unbearable hot in the summer. We have just enough of this gas to keep us warm, but not so much to overheat us. To top off all this, God has placed a layer of a gas called ozone high in our atmosphere. This layer of gas is capable of absorbing ultraviolet exposure to the sun. Without it, we would be essentially cooked.

Arrangement of the Land
It is well known by virtually everyone that dark colored objects absorb heat better than light colored ones. Most of the land mass on the Earth is located in the northern hemisphere. This means that the southern hemisphere is mostly surfaced with water and ice–light colored materials. Why is this important? During the summer in the United States, the Earth is at its greatest distance from the Sun. During the summer in the southern hemisphere (which is our winter, north of the equator), the Earth is closest to the Sun. If most of the land mass with its dark color was located in the southern hemisphere, too much heat and light would be absorbed and that hemisphere would overheat. Because the southern hemisphere is mostly water, very little heat (percentage wise) is absorbed, and what is absorbed is contained in the water, thus enabling it to warm the colder places on the Earth in either hemisphere. Since the dark land surface in the northern hemisphere is pointed toward the Sun in our summer, maximum absorption occurs, thus compensating for our greater distance from the Sun. Indeed we see an amazing system, which provides so beautifully for the needs of life upon the Earth. This is just one of a myriad of design features we see in the Earth’s construction and arrangement in space. Any one of these we might justifiably attribute to chance, but when we realize the interdependence of all these features we cannot in academic honesty attribute them to accident. They clearly show design by a wise designer.

 

Article by: Harry Osborne